Ancillary Services in a World of Renewable Energy
by Bob Shively, Enerdynamics President and Lead Facilitator
As the amount of wind and solar power grows on a grid, the variability of these resources requires grid operators to reevaluate needs for ancillary services. But we find that many stakeholders are not equipped to discuss this issue because they don’t fully understand what ancillary services are. Here is a quick primer.
Grid system operators use ancillary services to ensure reliable operations of the grid
Ancillary services are the services (other than energy) required by system operators to ensure reliable operation of the electric grid. They are used to keep the system operating within acceptable frequency and voltage levels and to restore the system when contingencies occur. Examples of contingencies include unexpected power plant or transmission line outages, sudden changes in demand, sudden changes in supply from renewable resources, and unexpected flows to or from neighboring control areas.
An example of using ancillary services to maintain the balance between supply and load
The specific ancillary services utilized varies by market but may include the following examples:
- Frequency regulation – sources of supply that can ramp up or down within a few seconds
- Spinning reserves – sources of supply that are synchronized to the frequency of the grid and can ramp to full capacity within 10 minutes
- Non-spinning reserves – sources of supply that may not be synchronized to the frequency of the grid but can be available within 10 minutes
- Replacement reserves –sources of supply that may not be synchronized to the frequency of the grid but can be available within 10 minutes
- Flexible ramp capability – sources of supply that have the ability to ramp up within 5 minutes
- Voltage support – sources of supply that can provide reactive power to the grid as needed to support voltage
- Black start – sources of supply that can start without power from the grid for the purpose of restoring the system after an outage
Note that these are examples and, in your region, slightly different titles or definitions may be used.
Once units have been scheduled to provide any of these ancillary services in the day ahead, the resources must be available for dispatch by system operators throughout the period for which they are scheduled.
In vertically integrated wholesale markets, ancillary services are provided by utility resources under regulated cost-based tariffs. In competitive markets, the bulk system operator (the Independent System Operator or Transmission Operator) utilizes Ancillary Services markets to obtain needed resources at market-based prices.
In a competitive wholesale market, market participants provide services to the ISO or TO
Ancillary services are traditionally provided by units such as hydropower, gas combustion turbines, gas combined-cycle turbines, and gas or coal steam turbine units that are providing energy from a portion of their capacity but that have additional unused capacity. In some areas, flexible loads also provide frequency regulation and the various reserves services.
As the amount of variable renewable resources grows in regions without robust hydropower, the amount of traditional resources to provide ancillary services will shrink. At the same time, the need for flexible ramp will increase. This will provide a significant challenge for grid operators to ensure they have access to sufficient ancillary services. New resources including enhanced flexible load programs, batteries, use of smart inverters for voltage support and frequency regulation, vehicle-to-grid, and other forms of storage will likely be required.
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